Sunday, 15 July 2018

Do I have to drink eight glasses of water per day?

- Alexandra Hansen of The Conversation Asked five experts

Everyone knows humans need water and we can’t survive without it. We’ve all heard we should be aiming for eight glasses, or two litres of water per day.
This target seems pretty steep when you think about how much water that actually is, and don’t we also get some water from the food we eat?
We asked five medical and sports science experts if we really need to drink eight glasses of water per day.

All five experts said no

Here are their detailed responses:
Karen Dwyer 
Deputy Head, School of Medicine
Deakin University

No. You only need to drink to thirst. The best gauge of your hydration level is the colour of your urine. You should aim for light yellow in colour; if very dark then you're dehydrated and need more water; if clear (like water) then you don’t need so much water. Excessive water intake can be dangerous, particularly in those with heart conditions. The kidney has a remarkable ability to concentrate water so if you are "getting dry" the kidney will concentrate the urine and send a message to the brain to drink more.
Vincent Ho
Senior Lecturer and clinical academic gastroenterologist,
Western Sydney University
No it’s not necessary to drink eight glasses of water a day. It appears the origin of the recommendation to drink eight glasses of water a day may have come from a publication by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board in 1945 stating "A suitable allowance of water for adults is 2.5 litres daily in most instances". The recommendation also stated that "most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods", a fact which is often overlooked. We do get a lot of our water intake from the foods we consume. Cauliflower and eggplant for example are 92% water. A one-size fits all approach is unlikely to be helpful. Healthy adults may not need to drink an additional eight glasses of water a day. On the other hand persons with certain diseases or living in very hot climates may require larger intakes of fluid.
Michael Tam
General Practitioner, and Senior Lecturer,
University of Sydney

No. Eight glasses, which is just less than two litres of water, is very roughly the basal water required by a fasting, well adult per day, who is doing nothing at all (for example, staying in hospital), with no special losses (such as vomiting or diarrhoea). In day-to-day life, we usually have additional losses (exercise, or sweating during a hot day), and we receive water from other sources. There are the obvious ones from our diet such as beverages, and juicy and moist foods, such as fruit and vegetables. Less obvious is water from the metabolism of food. The conversion of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins to energy in our bodies all produce water. Rather than focusing on the number of glasses, simply drink fluids when thirsty. Aiming for more water (especially in place of sweetened drinks) is often a good idea to improve health.
Jon Bartlett
Sport Science Research Fellow,
Victoria University

No. A person’s daily water requirements are highly individual and dependent upon a number of internal and external factors. While eight glasses of water per day is recommended as a base requirement to meet daily physiological needs, the actual volume of water required in a day is dependent on one’s day-to-day activities, health, and the climate in which they reside. Research shows even just a mild level of dehydration can negatively affect both mental and physical performance. This is further accentuated for individuals who are highly active and who live in hot environments. A simple and easy reminder to ensure you are drinking enough is to drink to thirst, and for days when activity levels are higher than normal or in hotter environments to increase the regularity of drinking and the total volume. 
Toby M√ľndel
Senior Lecturer
School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition
Massey University

No. Many factors will determine how much water (via all foods and fluid, not just water!) your body needs. These include body size and composition (weight, muscle and fat), how much you sweat (physically active, hot or humid environment, too much clothing) or urinate (taking certain medication, being at high altitude), your health (having fever, vomiting or disease) or status (pregnant, breast-feeding), and diet (high-water content foods, carbohydrates). For most healthy adults rarely feeling thirsty and having light yellow (or colourless) urine usually confirms adequate water intake. Other helpful tips include drinking a glass of low-calorie fluid before and with every meal (to distinguish hunger from thirst), and drinking low-calorie fluid before, during and after physical activity (especially if you sweat). Although rare, drinking too much fluid can also have negative health consequences so more is not necessarily better.

Thursday, 12 July 2018

Reasons to see a Physical Therapist

-Spectrum Physical Therapy

Back Pain

Affecting four out of five people at some time in their lives, back pain (often referred to as Lumbago) is the most common complaint treated by orthopedic physical therapists. In most cases, back pain is caused by over-straining the structural components in the back. Most cases, although painful, are not serious if seen to promptly and usually respond very well to physical therapy treatment.


This refers to irritation of the sciatic nerve that supplies nerve conduction to the leg. However it is often used to describe any pain in the leg, whatever the cause, whether it is related to circulation, pain referred from a back injury, trauma or nerve irritation. The most common causes of sciatica can usually be successfully treated by our staff.

Headaches and Neck Pain

Headaches and neck pain can be caused by cervical and shoulder tension caused by stress, poor posture, arthritis, inactivity, trauma, or by activities such as sitting at a computer all day. Patients normally respond well to orthopedic physical therapy treatment.

Joint / Muscle Pain

Physical therapists can treat joint and muscle strains in any part of the body including the hips, legs, knees, ankles, feet, wrist, elbows, shoulders, arms and ribs, for example knee injuries, frozen shoulder, ankle sprains, etc…

Sports Injuries

Physical therapy treatment can benefit sports players at all levels. If you are eager to get back to your sport quickly after injury, or have a problem which is preventing you from performing at your best, physical therapy can help you reach your peak level of fitness.

Repetitive Strain Injury / Tendonitis

This condition is commonly associated with people who work with computer keyboards and mice, and manual workers for prolonged periods of time. These are injuries such as lateral epicondylitis ‘tennis elbow’, golfer’s elbow, shoulder tendonitis,’shin splints’, etc… Physical therapy treatment can benefit these conditions, particularly when treated early.


Responsible for a great change in posture, pregnancy can cause back pain and discomfort. Many women find that gentle osteopathic treatment can bring great relief. We are experienced at treating mothers for a whole range of symptoms from low back pain, deconditioned state of fitness, poor posture, and pelvic floor disorders. We use gentle and specific structural (massage, mobilization, and cranial techniques. We also offer advice on exercise and healthcare issues. If you prefer to discuss this further don’t hesitate to call.

Post Surgery

Outpatient physical therapy can help patients, particularly those whose movement has been affected by surgery in order to regain their pre surgery mobility and life style. Surgeries include total joint replacements, meniscus and ACL reconstruction, rotator cuff repairs, subacromial decompressions, distal clavicle excisions, vertebral discectomies, fusions, disc replacements, and open reductions from fractures, etc… 


Normal wear and tear of the joint surface can result in arthritis or osteoarthritis. This kind of damage is not to be confused with some cases of arthritis that are caused by a disease affecting the joint surface. Osteoarthritis is a normal process associated with ageing. Usually the symptoms do not start until much later in life, if at all, and normally lead to some restriction in movement of the joints, plus some muscular aches and pains often referred to as rheumatism. Osteopathic treatment cannot reverse the wear and tear of the joint surface, but in most cases, osteopaths can offer treatment to improve function of other areas and structures, give advice on other factors, such as diet, exercises and lifestyle, which may help with long term relief from the symptoms associated with arthritis.

Neurological injuries (Stroke – MS) / Balance Deficits

Neurological injuries could occur after trauma to the body or head. An infarct or aneurysm to a blood vessel in the brain can lead to stroke. The residual loss of motor function can be a lot to deal with for the patient and their families. At Spectrum we provide manual therapy to restore lost motion, neuromuscular re-education to area of motor loss, gait training, balance training, therapeutic exercises, and education for the patient and their families.


Treatment is non-invasive and aimed at improving mobility and/or reducing inflammation by using gentle osteopathic techniques on joints, muscles, and ligaments. Physical therapy treatment in many cases will allow the patient to avoid surgery. We use our hands to palpate the soft tissues, increase joint mobility, and improve range in hypomobile joints. This may involve stretching tissues and tendons or using articulatory movements and sometimes manipulation to the joints. Manipulation is only short lever technique, not long lever technique, which is used by other professions. We like to explain what we are trying to achieve and the approach we intend best suited to you. There is no standard treatment plan or blocks of sessions. Some patients require one or two sessions with an exercise program, while others may need a longer duration of up to a three month period. Follow ups are sometimes recommended if a causal factor is unavoidable. e.g. workplace environment or lifestyle. 
We believe in working with conventional medicine to achieve the best results for our patients. If necessary you may be referred to a specialist or your GP for a second opinion. Other tests may also be necessary such as X-Rays, MRIs, or CT scans. A letter will always be sent to a referring physician, giving an explanation of what we have found, what we think is the problem, what we intend to treat and how long we anticipate the treatment to last.

Monday, 9 July 2018

How can physical therapy help?


In physical therapy, trained professionals evaluate and treat abnormal physical function related to, for example, an injury, disability, disease or condition.
According to the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), a physical therapist is a trained and licensed medical professional with experience in diagnosing physical abnormalities, restoring physical function and mobility, maintaining physical function, and promoting physical activity and proper function.
Licensed physical therapists can be found in a range of healthcare settings including outpatient offices, private practices, hospitals, rehab centers, nursing homes, home health, sports and fitness settings, schools, hospices, occupational settings, government agencies, and research centers.

In Gladstone, we will help take care of you. PhysioCall Gladstone is being recommended by many clients of ours. We can help you maintain a fit and healthy body inside and out. We love to hear from you and your story.

What to expect

A physical therapist helps take care of patients in all phases of healing, from initial diagnosis through the restorative and preventive stages of recovery. Physical therapy may be a standalone option, or it may support other treatments.

Some patients are referred to a physical therapist by their doctor, but other seek therapy themselves.

Whichever way a patient come to a physical therapist, they can expect to:

  • Undergo a physical exam and evaluation, including a health history and certain testing procedures, including evaluation of posture, movement and flexibility, and of muscle and joint motion and performance
  • Receive a clinical diagnosis, prognosis, plan of care and short and long term goals
  • Receive physical therapy treatment and intervention based on the therapist's evaluation and diagnosis
  • Receive self-management recommendations
Patients often train with a physical therapist in exercises that they can do at home, to help them function more effectively.

Benefits of physical therapy

Depending on the reason for treatment, the benefits of physical therapy include:
  • Pain management with reduced need for opioids
  • Avoiding surgery
  • Improved mobility and movement
  • Recovery from injury or trauma
  • Recovery from stroke or paralysis
  • Fall prevention
  • Improved balance
  • Management of age-related medical problems
A sports therapist can help an athlete to maximize their performance through strengthening specific parts of the body and using muscles in new ways.
A healthcare provider or physical therapist can advise individuals about the benefits specific to their personal medical history and their need for treatment.


Monday, 2 July 2018

9 Characteristics of Self-Actualized People

By Kendra Cherry 
In psychology, self-actualization is achieved when you're able to reach your full potential. Being truly self-actualized is considered the exception rather than the rule since most people are working to meet more pressing needs. 

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Psychologist Abraham Maslow outlines what is known as a hierarchy of needs, representing all the various needs that motivate human behavior. The hierarchy is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest levels representing basic needs and more complex needs located at the top of the pyramid.

At the peak of this hierarchy is self-actualization. The hierarchy suggests that when the other needs at the base of the pyramid have been met, you can then focus your attention on this pinnacle need of self-actualization.


9 Characteristics of 
Self-Actualized People

Here are some of the key characteristics of self-actualized people as described by Maslow:

Self-Actualized People Have Peak Experiences

One characterization of self-actualization is having frequent peak experiences.

According to Maslow, a peak experience involves "Feelings of limitless horizons opening up to the vision, the feeling of being simultaneously more powerful and also more helpless than one ever was before, the feeling of ecstasy and wonder and awe, the loss of placement in time and space with, finally, the conviction that something extremely important and valuable had happened, so that the subject was to some extent transformed and strengthened even in his daily life by such experiences."
In other words, these are moments of transcendence in which a person emerges feeling changed and transformed.

They Possess Self-Acceptance and a Democratic World View

Self-actualized people accept themselves and others as they are. They tend to lack inhibition and are able to enjoy themselves and their lives free of guilt.
Not only do self-actualized people fully accept themselves, they also embrace other people for who they are. Other individuals are treated the same regardless of background, current status, or other socio-economic and cultural factors. 

They Are Realistic

Another major characteristic of self-actualized people is a sense of realism. Rather than being fearful of things that are different or unknown, the self-actualized individual is able to view life as it unfolds both logically and rationally. 

They Tend to Be Problem-Centered

Self-actualized individuals are often motivated by a strong sense of personal ethics and responsibility. They enjoy applying their problem-solving skillsto real-world situations and they like helping other people improve their own lives. 

The Self-Actualized Person Is Autonomous

Self-actualized people also tend to be very independent. They don't conform to other people's ideas of happiness or contentment. This original perspective allows the individual to live in the moment and appreciate the beauty of each experience. 

They Enjoy Solitude and Privacy

Self-actualized individuals value their privacy and enjoy solitude. While they also love the company of others, taking time to themselves is essential for their personal discovery and cultivating their individual potential. 

They Have a Philosophical Sense of Humor

Self-actualized individuals generally have a thoughtful sense of humor. They're able to enjoy the humor in situations and laugh at themselves, but they don't ridicule or joke at the expense of another person's feelings. 

Self-Actualized People Are Spontaneous

Another characteristic of self-actualized people is a tendency to be open, unconventional, and spontaneous. While these people are able to follow generally accepted social expectations, they don't feel confined by these norms in their thoughts or behaviors. 

They Fully Enjoy the Journey, Not Just the Destination

While self-actualized people have concrete goals, they don't see things as simply a means to an end. The journey toward achieving a goal is just as important and enjoyable as actually accomplishing the goal.

Friday, 29 June 2018

Benefits of Physical Therapy

- by: American Physical Therapy Association

Physical therapists treat people of all ages and abilities. Here are some ways a physical therapist can help you. 


Maximize Your Movement

Pain-free movement is crucial to your quality of life, your ability to earn a living, and your independence. Physical therapists are movement experts who can identify, diagnose, and treat movement problems.


Participate In Your Recovery

Physical therapists work collaboratively with their patients and clients. Treatment plans are designed for each person’s individual goals, challenges, and needs.


Avoid Opioids

Opioid risks include depression, overdose, and addiction, plus withdrawal symptoms when stopping use. In some situations, dosed appropriately, prescription opioids are an appropriate part of medical treatment. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is urging health care providers to reduce the use of opioids in favor of safe alternatives like physical therapy for most long-term pain.


Avoid Surgery

Before you undergo expensive or invasive surgery, try physical therapy. For some conditions, including meniscal tears and knee osteoarthritis, rotator cuff tears, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disk disease, treatment by a physical therapist has been found to be as effective as surgery.


Looking for a Physical Therapist?

Please don’t hesitate to ask PhysioCall Gladstone for information.

Call 0749620411
Or Email

Friday, 8 June 2018

Keep Your Body Moving

Keep it Moving!

It is very important for a human body to keep moving to maintain lasting agility. Its not just about going to the gym everyday. You can do it in and outside your house, or while walking your dog and even while preparing meals. 

Ya-Ling Liou said movement is an important part of mitigating everyday pain and keeping the body agile. We all have our own path and we need to make peace with it. Once we do, we will find balance in our body and mind. Maybe we’ll only get a glimpse of balance, but striving for it is what life is all about. Any seasoned athlete will tell you that if you fail, fall or miss the mark, you get up, dust yourself off and try it again. That’s the only way to move forward, so you might as well do it armed with good information. 

PhysioCall Gladstone offers not just treatments, we also offer coaching on how you can keep your body healthy. They say "one small thing is better than nothing". You can start small, few routines, and that's still better than not exercising at all.

Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands or SAID is being used for years now when it comes to rehabilitation and sports training. It is very direct as it sounds. It is similar to the concept "USE IT or LOSE IT" which is scientifically proven theory that the human body responds to any stressors given to it.
Your body movement connects to your brain. Our body's function is to move and like vehicle engines that is left unused our body and brain will get used to it and by the time you want to use it, it will have problems. Our brain is not used of not receiving signals from our body anymore. It is vital that we keep the communication between our body and brain.

I often hear friends say how they struggle getting back to regular exercise after a lull in their routine. They feel that they've lost any gains they previously made. That sense of regression happens more quickly as we age -- not because we're necessarily more decrepit, but because our wiring is more easily turned off (as described above). It's much easier to wake up the neural connections than to build muscles mass from scratch, so don't lose heart when you fall out of your routine. Be gentle with yourself and know that when you get back to your exercise routine, you'll still have a measure of the foundation you built. You'll just need to wake it up.

You may experience a little pain now, but its nothing comparable to when your body is too late to do all the exercise and damaged.

PhysioCall Gladstone is here to help guide you all the way. Whether as a beginner, recovering from injuries or surgeries, getting back after you've stop doing it and a lot more reasons why each one needed to stop. Ankle Strapping Guide

Watch on YouTube here: Ankle Strapping Guide